The Potomac Highlands Watershed School 

Stream Cleaner Environmental Forum 2008


Points of View & Thoughtful Questions - Other


'Other' POV & TQ Navigation

Little Green Axman   Ecstatic Environmentalists   The Counting Coals  

Rollin' in the Green   The Chesapeake Strip Mall   Industry Minimizing Pollution

Nutty Environmentalists   TOP STORIES   Mentalists    Tree Huggers  

The Forester Boys   Representing Luke Mill

awesomley amazing super spectacular envoirnmentalist   K and B's Seafood Restaurant

Makin Money    Big Lots   Sycamores  Mind Blowing Menhaden   BlowBoats   hug a tree

Navigation to other POV pages 

Bay Ecosystem  •  Recreation/Tourism  •  Farmers  •  Watermen  •  Local Governments

Homeowner  •   Developer  ▪  Chesapeake Bay Program  ▪  Others

Comments to All Others

  From:   Mt de Sales                                                                                                Ask


     What are the possible solutions that will help save the Bay?



Little Green Axman                                                                   Massanutten Gov. S.-Newcomer

Logger                                                                                                                      3/31/2008

As members of the logging industry, we believe it is very important to maintain our

environment while still getting the job done. Being part of the logging team in the

Chesapeake Bay watershed we have major roles to play in protecting our environment. Every

 year, 4 billion trees are harvested worldwide. This can affect the atmosphere by increasing

 CO2 levels and therefore increasing temperature, disturbing water quality by exposing it to

 soil erosion, allowing excess nutrients to runoff into nearby streams and rivers, and adding

to the amount of debris clogging waterways. While continuing to harvest trees, we can use

Best Management Practices (BMPs) that help us maintain the health of the environment.

Clear cutting to some may be considered a dangerous way to harvest hardwood, yet the

dependency of lumber pushes us to think of ways to harvest wood while keeping the

environment intact. When harvesting near the Bay, a logging team would have to look at the

big picture. If we obtain lumber near a watershed we would take into affect

establishing/maintaining a riparian buffer as a BMP. This would prevent sedimentation and

soil runoff from penetrating the watershed. Once the area of land chosen for lumber has

been clear-cut, we would then replant trees in place of the ones we had harvested. Clear

cutting can be beneficial if done properly. Studies have shown that the thinning of trees

promotes the development of old growth characteristics and the diversity of plants and

shrubs while attracting a more diverse animal population. The negative effects of clear

cutting increase with the size of the area cut. Forest Fires become more intense and are

able to scorch and damage the soil itself. An alternative to clear cutting is selective

cutting. This process involves selecting lumber to be harvested. In general, this protects old

growth lumber from harvest.  Sometimes only a single tree is chosen out of an area, or

small groups of trees are cut. By implementing selective cutting we keep up with the demand

 while managing and improving the forests at the same time. It creates a better habitat for

local animals, and attracts animals from the surrounding area, increasing the biodiversity of

the area. It makes the forest more resilient to fire because you have a stand of trees of

different ages and sizes.By utilizing BMPs we are able to protect the environment and

keep up with the supply and demand of the economy. We therefore set an example for

other companies that are attempting to keep up with the growing markets and go green at

the same time, and show that it is possible.




Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions


  From:   DORY-DORY FISH - Waterman - MHS                                        Ask


            do you believe in clear cutting the trees? do you think it is wise to strip the trees?

  From:   fishies - CB_Ecosystem - MHS                                                     Ask


          Logging is an important job and many thanks go to those who do such a job for a

     living. But, couldn't they do a little more? Something should be planted in place of

            clear cutting to help the soil, no matter how far away water may be.

  From:   Chicken Kickers'' 101 - farmer - MHS                                        Ask


     If the demand for lumber would go up signiffiently would you still try to use the

     pactices you have set?

  From:   The Red Neck Yacht Club - recreation - JWHS(F)                     Ask


     The Little Green Axmen POV said that after an area of forest has been clear cut,

     they then go back and replant new trees to replace the ones they took. My question

     is: Do you replant the same species of trees that were harvested? I know that

     certain species of animals need specific kinds of trees. If the trees in an area were

     replaced with a different species of foiliage, what would happen to the animals that

     were dependent on the orriginal growth? (This POV did make me feel better about

     the logging industry since they explained that the trees were replanted and that they

      left a repraian buffer to help control soil erosion).


  From:   Home Jackets - homeowner - MHS                                                            Ask


     The problm with clear cuting and replanting is that 90% of the time they cut hard

     wood(oak, hickery) and plant soft woods.(pine, cider).  What do you think about tree


  From:   DORY-DORY FISH - Waterman - MHS                                                   Ask


     Couldn't you replace the area that you cut with bamboo? Bamboo is a renewable

     resource and it takes only three years to fully mature.


       Response    Industry Minimizing Pollution - Other - MRGS


             Although you're correct that bamboo matures more quickly than hardwood, it

             wouldn't provide the right kind of habitat for the existing ecosystem.

       Response    Anti-Wilderness Progressive Movement - developer - JWHS(T)


             what type of bamboo? There are over 1000 different varieties of bamboo each

             growing at different rates. You ,ust also consider that the 3 years mentioned is in

              a tropical climate. Bamboo may take a much longer time to mature in an area with

              less rain. Also what would the cost of the bamboo be? If it would cost an

             unreasonable amount of money how would this be effective as it would deter

             many developers from purchasing the lumber.

       Response    Little Green Axman - Other - MRGS


             As loggers we are not proposing to clear cut, but instead use selective cutting.

             Selective cutting (as its name suggests) entails selecting specific trees to be cut

             and leaving the remaining forest generally untouched.

             In response to the Bamboo issue brought up by the watermen, you generally want

              to avoid implementing introduced species because they have no natural predators.

              The bamboo is easily capable of phasing out the naturally occuring trees in the

             area, leaving groves of bamboo in the place of forests of trees.

             Yes, we would use the BMP's listed because sustainability is ultimately more

             important then making a quick profit.








Ecstatic Environmentalists                                                         Massanutten Gov. S.-Newcomer

Environmentalists                                                                                                      3/31/2008

As environmentalists, our goal is to promote the health of the Chesapeake Bay by preventing

 pollution, educating the public, guaranteeing the clean up of streams and rivers, and caring

for the wildlife in the watershed. We will strive to protect the bay and its watershed and

one way is through improving agriculture. The future of agriculture in this region and the

future health of this bay are interdependent. Implementing agricultural practices will

enhance the water quality of the bay, prevent erosion, and reduce run-off. Simple BMP’s

such as riparian buffers, tree and shrubbery planting, and cover crops will help keep extra

sediment and nutrients from getting into streams and rivers that eventually lead to the bay.

A way we could enable this is through agricultural incentive programs that actually reward

farmers for using best management practices, such as the Farmers Union’s Carbon Credit

Program. The program allows farmers to receive income from storing carbon in the soil

from no-till crop production or capturing methane.


Education is important to the future of the bay, because it informs future generations

about the current condition of the Chesapeake Bay.  Most states of the Chesapeake Bay

watershed require schools to teach students about the bay once in each elementary, middle,

 and high school.  Each state of the Chesapeake Bay watershed has different goals for

educating students on the bay’s problems. Virginia’s department of education website offers

 lesson plans on the Chesapeake Bay and a rough itinerary for teachers.  The lesson plans

range from lessons lasting one and a half hours to lessons lasting two to three weeks.

Teaching students what things are helpful and harmful to the bay throughout their school

career is a practical long term solution.    Stormwater runoff from streets and urban

areas is a large source of pollution entering the Bay; contributing about as much as

industries and sewage treatment plants. Every year, 10,800 thousand pounds of heavy

metals and 1,512 billion gallons of industrial wastes, among other toxins, invade the bay. A

variance of around 1,000 different chemicals can be found in almost every area of the bay.

 Defects and mortality in fish from diseases and stress are among the main results of such

pollution; as well as decline in shoreline and underwater vegetation due to the reduced

oxygen levels in the bay. The survival rate of certain fish species (percentage of fish that

don’t prematurely die from unnatural causes) in the bay has been decreasing. Take the

striped bass for example: their survival rate has decreased from about 70% of all bay bass

 in the mid-1990s to around 50% recently. How can we make sure this tragic decline stops

before the bay becomes extinct?


The average person can do more than you think to affect the watershed. They could make

simple changes around their house and yard to have a positive influence on the Chesapeake

Bay. Planting a rain garden, making a permeable driveway, or installing a rain barrel at the

end of your downspout could be ways to prevent the flow of runoff. Inside the house, they

could use energy efficient appliances to help save money and the environment at the same

time. ENERGY STAR appliances are recommended because they use 10-50% less energy

and water than standard models and save you approximately $80 a year in energy costs.


Also, if every American home replaced just one light bulb with a compound fluorescent light

 bulb, we would save enough energy to light more than 3 million homes for a year, more than

 $600 million in annual energy costs, and prevent greenhouse gases equivalent to the

emissions of more than 800,000 cars ( Every simple change could affect

the watershed and the Chesapeake Bay itself by intercepting general pollution as well was

bay-specific inhibitors.


If the environmentalists were to disappear, then the effectiveness of every other

stakeholder group would begin to decline because they would have no foundation to base

their works on. Fisherman and farmers may begin to lose business and diseases and illnesses

 would begin to spread around due to the chemicals getting into the water. Businesses and

industries wouldn’t care anymore about their greenhouse gas emissions and there would be

no group there to enforce the laws and regulations of keeping the bay clean. The health of

the bay would probably decrease because no one would be there to implement the plans of

saving the bay.


The effectiveness of our plans being implemented would result in the increase in the

restoration of the bay. If successful, we will continue our plans and projects to make the

bay even cleaner for future generations. But, we have to make sure that the future

generations continue applying our plans or our work will be all for nothing. We want to

encourage today’s generation as well as future generations to take action in helping

preserve the Chesapeake Bay.

Works Cited: "Carbon Credit Program." 2008. National Farmers Union. 2 Mar 2008. <>.

Chesapeake Bay Foundation. 2006. 2 Mar 2008.


Energy Star. 2 Mar 2008


Peirce, Carolyn. "Lawmaker: Teach kids about environment."  17 July 2007. 3 Mar 2008 <>.

"Lessons from the Bay Lesson  Plans." Virginia Department of Education. 3 Mar 2008





Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions

  From:   The Red Neck Yacht Club - recreation - JWHS(F)                     Statement


     I just wanted to make the comment that I really enjoyed reading your POV. It made

      a lot of sense to me. Even though my group was for the torism bureu, at heart I am

     an environmentalist. I was wondering if in your reaserch you came across any

     program that was set up to teach the public about the bay habbitats. I work with a

     Center that helps teach the public about the importance of keeping the natural

     ballance of species in an area equal. Is there any group or organization that teaches

     the public about the importance of NOT introducing non-native speices into the bay

     watershed? I know that in other bodies of water invasive species have taken over

     (the sea-lamp-ray, zebra musscle, and snake-head, to mention a few). I just wanted

     to know if anyone was informing the public on this problem and how to prevent it.









The Counting Coals                                                                    Massanutten Gov. S.-Newcomer

Miner                                                                                                                       3/31/2008

We are writing on behalf of the coal miners in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Coal miners

in this area are vital to the economy and are relied upon as an energy producer. Coal

accounts for 49.7% of our nation’s electricity – over twice more than the next leading

source. Coal power is reliable, abundant, and domestically produced. 82,959 people are

employed by coal mines in the nation. 33,348 (40.2%) of them work in mines in the

watershed. That number does not include the countless jobs that result from the coal

industry such as equipment manufacturing. The industry is vital for the region’s economy as

well as the livelihood of thousands of area families. The industry is as part of America’s

heritage as the Grand Canyon and has certainly had a bigger impact on the average

American’s life.


The Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are in danger. Eutrophipication is suffocating marine

 life. Heavy metals are putting people and animals at risk of cancer and poisoning. Acid mine

drainage is pushing life past its range of pH tolerance. We are aware of the problems and

that we are a contributor to them. We care about the ecosystem and are willing to work to

improve it.


The two largest contributions to pollution from the coal industry are acid mine drainage and

 acid rain. Both are caused by sulfur escaping the mines and infiltrating the area’s wetlands,

 making the water too acidic for much aquatic life to tolerate. Acid mine drainage occurs

when sulfuric acid is formed by the oxidation of iron sulfide minerals. During mining, the

pyrite is exposed to air and water to form said sulfuric acid. Possible solutions to the

problem include precipitation of metal sulfides, or constructing wetlands.  Precipitating

metals sulfides entails introducing basic metals to the acidic water that has free sulfides.

The two react chemically, resulting in neutral water and metal sulfide concentrate that

could possibly be sold for a profit. The problem with this technique is that it is time, labor,

and material intensive. Constructing a wetland around the mine that has resilient plants can

filter out heavy metals and the anaerobic bacteria can neutralize the pH. Building an

artificial wetland is relatively cheap, it is a one time installment, and it is aesthetically

pleasing. The downside to utilizing wetlands is that it is a very slow process and its

effectiveness varies greatly by the season.

Coal, especially bituminous coal, contains sulfur deposits. When coal is burned for

electricity the sulfur is released in to the atmosphere. There it mixes with water and

creates sulfuric acid rain. A solution available to coal plants that are putting sulfur in to the

air could be scrubbers. Scrubbers are very efficient and effective but their cost outweighs

 their benefits. The average cost of scrubbers today is $300 per kilowatt. People are

normally charged eight cents per kilowatt.  For a regular sized power plant to install

scrubbers in all their facilities, it would cost around $300 million.



Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions


  From:   DORY-DORY FISH - Waterman - MHS                                        Ask


     i think your paper was very well structured, but your information is not all correct, i

     think that you need to update it, and then repost it.

       Response    The Counting Coals - Other - MRGS


             Our information was checked and we obtained it from a reliable and present

             source. I think you may want to tell us what you think is incorrect, because we

            are sure that all of our information is correct


  From:   Representing Luke Mill - Other - KHS(K)                                                Ask


     Is that 300 million per factory or 300 million for all the factories?

       Response    The Counting Coals - Other - MRGS


             The 300$ million would be for each individual factory, not all of the factories









Rollin' in the Green                                                                   Massanutten Gov. S.-Newcomer

Municipalities                                                                                                           3/31/2008

Municipalities have always been major contributors to environmental pollution sources.

Recently, some very efficient Best Management Practices have been developed to combat

the effect of these cities on the environment. Combined with the use of Best Management

Practices, smart city pollution management is possible for everywhere, from small towns to

large cities.      The Chesapeake Bay is a very important resource to the communities

surrounding the bay, including our city. Unfortunately, due to the nature of cities, which is

to have large amounts of people polluting in a confined environment, our city is also one of

the major contributors to the pollution of the bay. The bay is an important economic and

aesthetic resource, which we are dedicated to preserving.       


First, we must identify the sources of our pollution. Starting with the roadways, runoff is a

very large concern. Oil and other car byproducts are deposited on our roadways daily,

polluting the bay through runoff. This problem is further compounded by the non-porous

asphalt. Non-porous asphalt allows oil and other contaminants to run directly into the bay

without filtration. Another major contributor to the problem is construction within the city.

Concrete used in construction annually contributes almost 8% of humanity’s carbon dioxide

emissions. Storm water discharge around the construction site is also a major concern with

pollution. As water flows into the drains around a site, it carries with it any chemicals or

contaminants that are being used within the construction. This may include asbestos,

mercury, and contamination from advanced oil based products used during the construction

process. Finally, the last major contributor to the pollution is the one that is easiest to

control: the public. Public awareness of pollution is still a factor into the pollution controls

within the city. Despite years of recycling programs and years of public service

announcements concerning these programs, many people continue to throw everything away.

 This ends up in the streets and landfills, where the materials contained within these

products are washed out into the bay.  


All of these problems are major, but all of them can be solved with little or no effort, just

a raised awareness of the solutions. Roadways with a permeable surface have been tested

within Europe, with the effect that the same chemicals that would have been washed into

the bay are absorbed into the roadway, filtering through the ground. This removes most of

the heavy metals and oil in the contaminants, resulting in mostly clean water reaching the

bay.      Construction has some very simple solutions, but these are almost always ignored.

Simply recycling the un-used materials from construction can cut down on the amount of

new materials used in each new project. Problems with the chemical contamination can be

solved with a two part solution. First, the most obvious solution is to only perform

construction in dry weather. Unfortunately, this isn’t always possible due to deadlines for

construction, so this is where the permeable asphalt comes into play. The same chemicals

that would normally flow into the stream from the construction site are now absorbed and

filtered out through the same process as the road chemicals being filtered out.

Finally, on the topic of raising public awareness, the same old tactics will probably not work

anymore. The possibilities include monetary incentives for recycling essential metals;

implement a program for the unemployed, in which the unemployed will have the option of

working for the city to help clean up the roads and the bay instead of the standard welfare



In conclusion, several easily implemental programs can drastically reduce the amount of refuse and pollution the municipality produces and puts into the Chesapeake Bay. Best Management Practices such as the ones outlined in this paper can help achieve this goal.


Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions


  From:   We Care, As Long As You Care - developer - CHS                     Ask


     Although I think that your group has made some good points about how you plan to

     remedy the way you contribute to pollution, my question is how do you plan to fund

     those programs and what, if any, way would that affect the public?







The Chesapeake Strip Mall                                                       Massanutten Gov. S.-Newcomer

Business                                                                                                                   3/31/2008

We are a representative group from an existing local strip mall located in the Chesapeake

Bay watershed. After our watershed was declared to be in critical condition, we decided to

take a look at what we could do to remedy the Bay’s situation. We acknowledge that our

businesses have a significant impact on the environment, but we also realize that we can

make several changes to lower our negative ecological impression in ways that are conducive

 to both our business and the Chesapeake Bay. Although our business will inevitably take

tolls on the condition of the Bay, the boost we add to the local economy is essential. We

provide jobs, services, and commodities for our citizens. In order to keep our area’s

financial system healthy, our participation is vital. However, the way we go about our

business can be altered to better accommodate our watershed’s needs.            


We plan to make our strip mall greener in several ways. Perhaps the most detrimental part

of a strip mall is its production of food. The used frying grease produced by the food

manufacturers are usually thrown out and result in environmentally unfriendly waterway

clogging and sewer system backups. We plan to install a bioremediation system where

bacteria are employed to naturally “eat away” at the waste products, eliminating disposal

concerns.          Another harmful byproduct from our food court is an increasing use of

disposable paper products. We have decided to eliminate paper products entirely and switch

 to their more eco-friendly bagasse counterparts. Bagasse is a fast-decomposing sugar cane

 product that biodegrades in thirty to ninety days, reducing environmental impact.         In our

public restrooms we plan to install water-saving utilities such as waterless urinals and

water-conserving faucets and toilets. This will cut down on water consumption and reduce

the strain of waste water on our environment as well as save us money.


We are also interested in daylight harvesting, a practice that involves an ambient light-

sensing system that dims electric lighting whenever natural light is sufficient. This will save

electricity and in time return our investment with reduced electric bills. Studies show that

an increase in natural lighting also benefits human mood and shopping potential, benefiting

our business, our customers, and our employees.           


Finally, we recognize the runoff created by our impermeable asphalt parking lot. In order

to maximize the usable surface area of the lot, we will divide it into sections for different

size vehicles. Smaller, more compact, and consequently eco-friendlier cars will receive

smaller parking spaces located closest to the mall. Larger vehicles that require larger

spaces will be located farther away from the mall. This creates a small incentive for owning

 a smaller car and rearranges our parking lot to increase usable space.  In all of these

ways, we hope to continue serving our community while becoming an ecologically friendlier

business. We do realize that some of these changes will require spending on our part, but

we believe that in an ecologically changing business world, our investments will bring us

financial benefits in time. 


Works Cited

“Better Site Design Fact Sheet: Green Parking.”  The Stormwater Manager’s Resource     Center. 26 February 2008.



“Green Parking Lots.” Department of Planning and Development. 30 September 2005. 26    February 008


Heschong Mahone Group. “Skylights and Retail Stores: An Investigation into the    Relationship Between Daylighting and Human Performance; Condensed Report.”  Daylight Technology. 20

 Aug 1991. 3 March 2008.


Verdon, Joan. "Malls  Lauded for Going Green." 23 Feb 2008. The Record. 3 Mar 2008


World Centric, “Biocompostables – Biodegradable Food Services and Packaging   Disposables.” 26

February 2008 <http://>

World Centric, "Compostable Sugar Cane Fiber Tree-Free Tableware." 26 February 2008




Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions


  From:   Mineral County Agriculturalists (the Aggies) - farmer - KHS(K)            Ask


     I really like your ideas about making your business more eco-friendly.  These all sound

     like great practices on paper but I am concerned about the actual aplication of some. 

     For example you stated to have  bacteria to eat away at your waste but where would

     you install such an area.  Would it simiply take up store space? Would you have a

     designated area for all restraunts to empty their waste? How would this work? I'm also

     not clear on how arranging the parking lot will decrease runoff. Overall I really liked

     your POV. It has many wonderful ideas.  Also it is great that you included a work sited


       Response    The Chesapeake Strip Mall - Other - MRGS


             Thanks for your kind words and great questions, Aggies! We've looked at several

             models for a bioremediation system, and the one we like best is a storage unit

             outside the building. It would be a designated waste area for the whole food


             The rearranging of the parking lot will not decrease runoff, per se, but it will

             increase the number of cars we can fit on the impermeable surface, hopefully

             eliminating a need for a larger or second parking lot. If we do put in a new

             parking lot in the future, we will use porous asphalt that will decrease runoff.

             Also, the rearranging provides a small incentive for owners of compact, eco-

             friendlier cars. Thanks again for the great feedback!




Industry Minimizing Pollution                                                    Massanutten Gov. S.-Newcomer

Industry                                                                                                                   3/31/2008

        In a world where the condition of our Chesapeake Bay is slowly degrading, we must all

 step up and take part in helping to save the bay. After years of trying to pretend that we

don’t hurt the environment, the Industry is ready to admit that we actually do. We ask that

you judge us not unfairly; for we are not alone in murdering the bay… we just do a little bit

more than others. We admit that Industrial pollution is a problem that contributes greatly

to the degraded condition of the Chesapeake Bay. As a collection of Industries in Northern

Virginia, we have realized that maintaining the health of the Bay is critical, for without it,

our society and way of life will be utterly destroyed. For our industry to survive in this day

and age, we must do our part in saving the Chesapeake Bay. Without the Bay, everyone will

move from our watershed, and then there will be no consumers to buy from us. Therefore,

we, the Industries of Northern Virginia have decided that it is in our best interest to form

an alliance with the environment.          


The primary pollutant produced by industry is nitrogen nutrient pollution. There are 49

industries that are primary nitrogen producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, and of

these 49 industries, 12 have already successfully reduced the amount of nitrogen that they

put into the river systems. One of these factories was the AlliedSignal Hopewell Plant- the

largest Ammonium Sulfate producer in the world. It is also the largest Point Source of

Nitrogen on the James River.  As of today, the plant has cut their nitrogen discharges by

80%, although they are still the largest producer of Ammonium Sulfate fertilizer in the

world. This shows that industries can take the initiative to reduce pollution and still be

economically successful.          


To become successful industries, we need the bay and we need a profit, so to reduce

pollution going into the bay we need economical solutions. Some solutions that are already in

place are air pollutant regulators in smoke stacks (more commonly known as scrubbers),

which keep harmful pollutants out of the atmosphere. Each smoke stack can be fitted with

sensors that are capable of monitoring emissions, and this data can be kept in a specific

computer, allowing us to look at the trends in the pollutants our plants are producing.        


Using Best Management Practices (BMPs) is another way to reduce the pollution. One

example of a BMP is a technique called “drip panning,” in which small containers or

indentations are placed underneath any leakage or drippage, thus allowing any leaking or

dripping chemicals to be cleaned with ease. Although this is a temporary solution, it

dramatically reduces the amount of chemicals that wash into the waterways. Another

example of a BMP is a riparian buffer- a natural corridor of trees or shrubs along the river

 bank, which protects the river from runoff and pollutants. These riparian buffers will be

planted along the banks of rivers near our industrial plants. Lastly, we have decided that

we will actively participate in the carbon credits program, in which allows us a certain

number of carbon emissions a year. If we go over our allowed carbon emissions, then not

only are we making less of a profit, but the money that we must spend goes to

environmental programs to help reduce pollution.        As we’ve said, keeping the

Chesapeake clean (which makes the people happy) will also increase profit for the Industry

of Virginia (which makes us happy), and also increases the overall health status of the bay

(which makes everyone happy). In conclusion: We, the Industries of the Chesapeake Bay

Watershed, will strive to implement economically feasible and environmentally conscious

BMPs to reduce the levels of pollution discharged into the water. This will not only increase

the water quality of the bay, but improve our image in the eyes of the public (which will

hopefully make us more money).


Blankenship, Karl. “Industries taking Initiative, big Bite out of Nutrient Discharges.” Chesapeake Bay Journal Online. 2/28/08.“BMP: Drip Pans.”

Industrial BMPs. 3/3/08.

“Business Technology: Monitoring Pollution at its Source.” NY Times online. 3/3/08.



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Thoughtful Questions





Nutty Environmentalists                                                                  James Wood H.S.-Fordyce

Environmentalist                                                                                                        4/8/2008

“Environmentalism is a broad philosophy and social movement centered on a concern for the

 conservation and improvement of the natural environment”.As an environmentalist I  try to

help people understand the importance of ecology and why we should treat nature with

great respect; both for its own sake and the importance of civilization. “One thing about

environmentalist is there is a very diverse range of options on what to do. Further more

there is almost an infinate list of things a person could do to help”, said Caryolyn Chase.

After reading her paper I’d have to agree that I consider the job of an environmentalist to

 connect with others and creat change. As an environmentalist I also support the

Chesapeake Bay Program, which  is a unique regional partnership that has led and directed

the restoration of the Chesapeake Bay since 1983. I feel enivronmentalist are important to

this watershed because there are a lot of things we can do to help support the goals of the

 Chesapeake Bay. The problems of the bay don’t just affect environmentalist but we

understand that and it’s our job to connect with people and help them understand that they

 to can be affected by the changes in the environment. There are many solutions and

approaches that could help protect and restore the bay. People are one of the main causes

of pollution. We could contribute to savng the environment by changing things in your home

like conserving water,  reducing energy consumption, maintain your septic system, reduce

household hazerdouse waste. Also you could help the bay in your own backyard by planting

trees, skipping the spring fertilizers and wait untill fall, compost falling leaves, reduce

runoff, landscape with native plants, and use pestocides carefully. On the road you can

plan trips carefully, walk or bike and carpool. At school reuses old school supplies, cover

books with newspaper or paper grocery bags, pack a waste free lunch and educate children

 while their young about pollution and saving the environment so they are aware that they

can also be affected.  I believe that if more people knew about the issues and how they

can be affected the more people would want to help. Some peolple would argue that their

lifes are to complicated and hectic to worry about the enviroment and spreading the word

wouldn’t help them get involed. Well I think they’re wrong because no matter how hectic

your life is you can still contribute by doing the little things.When more people get involved,

weather it’s contributing a lot or just a little bit  the bay would be restored more quickly,

and most importantly it would be done suceessfully.



Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions

  From:   Home Jackets - homeowner - MHS                                                            Statement


     I'm sorry but there is a lot of spelling errors; you don't seem professional when you say

     your an environmentalist but can't spell Chesapeake right. Also, I would have expected more


  From:   DORY-DORY FISH - Waterman - MHS                                                      Statement


     do we sound like idiots? come on really do you think that we don't know how too pronounce

     and/or define the word environmentalist?

     were not dummies, do you beg to differ?


  From:   Ecstatic Environmentalists - Other - MRGS                                            Statement


       You definitely were on the right track when you were writing this paper.  You included

     quite a few best management practices to help cut back on pollution only wish you would

     have gone into more detail. There were a few grammatical errors in your paper. "We

     could contribute to savng the environment by changing things in your home..."  this

     sentence switches from "we" to "you" and saving is spelled wrong.  I wanted to add that

     you actually did spell Chesapeake Bay right throughout this paper.  Starting out by

     defining what an environmentalist isn't a bad starting point for this paper.  I don't think

     you were trying to say the reader was dumb and didn't know what they were talking

     about, but it seemed like you were trying to establish a common definition.  I understood

      where you were coming from, your paper simply lacked enough details to make it stand

     out as one of the best.

  From:   Ecstatic Environmentalists - Other - MRGS                                            Statement


     You obviously have opinions and I respect them, but because of the spelling errors and

     stuff like that it is hard to take what you are saying seriously. I would suggest editing

            before you submit.




TOP STORIES                                                                                 James Wood H.S.-Fordyce

Environmentalist                                                                                                        4/8/2008


Pronunciation: (en-v"run-men'tl-ist, -v"urn-), [key] —n. 1. an expert on

environmental problems. 2. any person who advocates or works to protect the air, water,

animals, plants, and other natural resources from pollution or its effects. 3. a person who

believes that differences between individuals or groups, esp. in moral and intellectual

attributes, are predominantly determined by environmental factors, as surroundings,

upbringing, or experience (opposed to hereditarianism).


I am an environmentalist I try to protect the waters the wild life and plants from being

polluted by or any threats of a polluter. I work on the cheassepeack bay .framers are a big

 problem with there chemicals and there frurtilizer that sink in to the underground water

and it all flows right to the cheassepeack bay which kills fish and water plants. This can

cause a lot of havoc to everyone around the bay. That’s why I made it my job to protect

the waters of America so we can live in a clean world. Organize clean up days of the

streams and dams along the cheassepeack bay. Plant a buffer a round parts of the bay to

help the farms keep there cows out of the bay. We can organize a day to meet with the

commute to have an awareness day for the bay



Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions


  From:   fi$h hunter$ - Waterman - MdSA                                                          Ask


     Are you sure that buffers are to keep cows out of the Bay? I thought they were to

     prevent erosion. I don't think cows have a problem with drowning in the water because

     cows don't find the CHESAPEAKE Bay appealing.

  From:   Ecstatic Environmentalists - Other - MRGS                                            Ask


     I like your definition in the beginning :). Farmers are a problem, but they aren't the only

     people that contribute to the pollution in the Chesapeake Bay. Organizing days to clean

     up the Bay would be a good idea, but how are you going to get people to actually

            participate without using some sort of incentive?




Mentalists                                                                                        James Wood H.S.-Fordyce

Environmentalist                                                                                                        4/8/2008

1.  Environmentalists are known to deal with concerns about public health. We are very

important to the Chesapeake Bay. The Bay is much more than a body of water, its

organisms and body supports the region. We in fact are a significant component of are

quality of life. We work hard to accomplish several objectives first and for most protect

public health. We stop the pollution going into the bay from factories and sewage treatment

 plants. The bay is also chocked with pollution from 16.7 million residents of the watershed.


2.  The bay is the largest estuary in the world and has become a huge trashcan. Bottles and

 cans float on the sides, they drift into the streams, inlets, and along the shores of the bay.

 The bay is used as a home for thousands of creatures and organisms. The future of the

bay is in the hands of us and the citizens of the world. Its not always about the money we

spend to clean it up it is how we figure out to save and protect it.

  Two major reasons for the Chesapeake Bay's popularity are its huge size and its infinite

variety. The Bay stretches for approximately 200 miles along the coasts of Maryland and

Virginia, and offers year-round recreation for thousands of families. Every day, hundreds

of volunteers are doing their part to keep Bay waters clean, and there are many ways you

can help.

Clean Boating Tips:

•           Don't let trash get thrown or blown overboard.

•           If trash blows overboard, retrieve it & consider it "crew overboard" practice.

•           Pack food in reusable containers.

•           Fill portable fuel tanks on shore, where you are less likely to spill and where spills are

easier to clean up.

•           Keep your engine well tuned.  No leaking seals, gaskets, or hoses.

•           Place oil absorbing material in the bilge.

•           Never discharge bilge water with a sheen.  It's illegal.

•           Wash your boat frequently with a sponge and plain water.

•           Use phosphate free, biodegradable, and non-toxic cleaners.

•           Use alternatives to toxic bottom paints.

enviromentalists cartoons, enviromentalists cartoon, enviromentalists picture, enviromentalists pictures, enviromentalists image, enviromentalists images, enviromentalists illustration, enviromentalists illustrations



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Thoughtful Questions

  From:   Home Jackets - homeowner - MHS                                                            Statement


     I really enjoyed the comic. This definately stands out against the other POV's.


  From:   Industry Minimizing Pollution - Other - MRGS                                        Ask


     You had very thoughtful techniques in reducing pollution from boating, but being

     environmentalists, do you know any ways to help protect the Bay that don't have to do

     with boating? Boating contributes to only a small percentage of pollution in the Bay.

  From:   Industry Minimizing Pollution - Other - MRGS                                        Statement


     I really enjoyed your POV Paper. You provided many good solutions and techniques. Your

     paper was well organized and the comic at the bottom was entertaining. All around your

     paper was very good!




Tree Huggers                                                                                   James Wood H.S.-Fordyce

Environmentalist                                                                                                        4/8/2008


 Environmentalist are important to the Chesapeake Bay because they help stop nature from

 being destroyed and getting into the bay. The Chesapeake Bay is filled with oil and chemical

 pollution and it affects the environmentalist by giving them a job.

  Their job is to inform the public about what is going on so that they can try to stop the

pollution before it gets to the rivers and streams leading to the bay. If the bay was

completed cleaned and the pollution stopped then our jobs would be way easier, and we

could live so much cleaner. We help to solve the problem by protecting the public and trying

 our hardest to stop pollution and save nature.

  The solutions wouldn’t cost us anything because we get paid to help try and save the bay.

The way we get paid is by getting to live cleaner and healthier. Yes, I believe cleaning the

bay would help just about everything and everyone. We participate directly, it’s our job to

participate and help saving the bay.

  Tree huggers have been around forever. Recycling is one of the best ways to prevent

pollution in the Chesapeake Bay. For example you can recycle your old oil instead of just

dumping it on somewhere. Most people today think it’s a waste of time to pollution.

Personally I think its good, if it makes the air cleaner and the ground less dirty.



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Thoughtful Questions


  From:   The Forester Boys - Other - KHS(K)                                           Statement


     I really don't think that it would make the jobs much easier because, it would make

     it much harder for loggers to keep sediment from entering rivers to the chesapeake


  From:   Representing Luke Mill - Other - KHS(K)                                     Ask


     So what if your an Environmentalist. Someone who recycles is an environmentalist.

     What does you being an environmentalist have anything to do with cleaning up the

     bay? What do you think people should do to clean up the bay? What needs to happen

     for the bay to become healthy again? And another thing, Recycling doesn't have any

     efect on the bay at all. The 2 leading causes of the bay's polution is sedemintation,

     caused by farmers letting their cattle into stream beads and river banks ,and

     nutreint runoff from crop feilds caused by over fertilization by farmers. Trach that

             is not recycled is taken to a landfill not the Chesipeke Bay.

  From:   Representing Luke Mill - Other - KHS(K)                                                   Ask


          So what if your an Environmentalist. Someone who recycles is an environmentalist.

     What does you being an environmentalist have anything to do with cleaning up the bay?

     What do you think people should do to clean up the bay? What needs to happen for the bay

     to become healthy again? And another thing, Recycling doesn't have any efect on the bay at

      all. The 2 leading causes of the bay's polution is sedemintation, caused by farmers letting

     their cattle into stream beads and river banks ,and nutreint runoff from crop feilds caused

      by over fertilization by farmers. Trach that is not recycled is taken to a landfill not the

     Chesipeke Bay.

  From:   Home Jackets - homeowner - MHS                                                            Statement


     You sound a little over optimistic. The bay will never be completely clean, because of organic

      pollutants (i.e. leaves).

       Response    Tree Huggers - Other - JWHS(F)


             Your a little over pesamistic!


  From:   When fish fight back - CB_Ecosystem - JWHS(F)                                 Statement


     Hey whats up your POV statement was good I dont know what that other guy was

     talking about because recycling would help the bay.

  From:   Home Jackets - homeowner - MHS                                                         Statement


     I agree with Luke Mill. Recycling would be a great start, but what about chemicals

     entering the water? The 2 main pollutants are sediments and nutrients. Where did you

            get your sources?

  From:   The Pearls - local_gov - MdSA                                                                Statement


     Environmentalist not only educate people about they Bay, they are supposed clean the

     Bay and develop plans which will improve the future state fo the Bay.

       Response    Little Green Axman - Other - MRGS


             I agree it is very important to clean the Bay and the areas around it, which in turn

              reach the Bay through the watershed by means of runoff and acid rain. However

              solutions to help clean the Bay can't fully restore it to its original state. Not

             everyone shares the same interest we do, which is to save our environment, and

             not many people would want to pay nothing for their services contributing to the

             cleaning of the Bay. Construction of buffer zones and BMP's in general will

             require the assistance of machinery operated by construction workers who work

             for money not free.





The Forester Boys                                                                                        Keyser H.S.-Kurtz

Forester                                                                                                                    4/8/2008

As a forester we hear about the problems of the sedimentation and the chemicals coming

from farmers fields. As foresters we think that tree buffer zones around agricultural

fields would help with the problems. Why because, trees are good for helping stop sediment

 runoff into the bay and surrounding streams. Tree buffer zones are a natural

sedimentation barrier and they are good for the environment by giving off oxygen, and by

giving animals a great habitat to live in. Ways that the forest buffers can help

sedimentation are by slowing down the runoff and the leaves build up can also slow the

runoff down.



Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions

  From:   fishies - CB_Ecosystem - MHS                                                                   Statement


     Although I agree with your thoughts on the ways you can fix pollution, but maybe you

     should put in you POV paper about WHAT pollutions are running off into streams that lead

     into the bay!

     But other then that, you all had a pretty good explanation :)


       Response    The Forester Boys - Other - KHS(K)


             Thanks alot but we will have to do some more research in order to do that.




Representing Luke Mill                                                                                  Keyser H.S.-Kurtz

Paper Mill                                                                                                                 4/8/2008

As a representative for a Mead Westvaco factory in the Chesapeake water shed, I know

the effects that factories have on the environment. For years factory owners and personal

 have denied the facts on their effect on the environment, but they can not any more. They

 are trying to fix the mistakes they’ve made in the past by striving to learn from them.

Industrial scientist and environmental scientists alike are finding new ways to reduce our

negative impact on the environment.


In recent years they have added a new air filtration system improving air quality and

environmental health in the surrounding area. They are also reusing more and more

recycled material every day, helping to protect and conserve the environment. They are

also disposing of factory waste in responsible ways(Not dumping them into the Potomac).

Those at Mead Westvaco know the effect they have on the environment and are striving to

 improve it.



Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions

  From:   Home Jackets - homeowner - MHS                                                            Ask


     Ok, if you do not dump the waste in the Potomac then what do you do with it?

  From:   Mineral County Agriculturalists (the Aggies) - farmer - KHS(K)               Ask


     What else can the paper mill do to improve the surrounding area? Is there any harmful

     sunstances that come out of the stacks that are polluting the area?


       Response    Representing Luke Mill - Other - KHS(K)


             now a days factories consintrate on not creating waste at all. Others, not

             including Luke Mill, reuse the waste that they create. CSX burns the old oil from

             the trains to heat their buildings. The oil that Luke Mill does create is trucked to

             treatment plants were most wastes are diluted with water untile they are no

             longer harmful to the enviroment.

  From:   Bojangles - farmer - JWHS(T)                                                                Ask


     You address the situation of the Potomac, but that is not the only river in the area. What

      about the Savage? and other smaller creeks in the area?

MODERATOR COMMENT:  It's just fine if they focus only on their local waters.  That will help restore the Bay.

       Response    Representing Luke Mill - Other - KHS(K)


             Although your question is outside of my POV, I am aware that Patrerson's Creek

             is polluted by runoff from farms in its water shed, until recent years New Creek

             has been polluted by maltiple sources, and as far as the Savege River goes, ther

             has never been a pollution problme.





awesomley amazing super spectacular envoirnmentalist                   James Wood H.S.-Takarsh

environmentalist                                                                                                        4/9/2008

    We decided that environmentalists are important to the earth because we help save jobs

 and the earth the Chesapeake Bay is just one of many problems that we are trying to solve

 right now with all the help that environmentalists can get we can look forward to a

brighter and better future and a cleaner earth. By cleaning up rivers and oceans even

valleys we can save people from the high pollution in the earth’s atmosphere and save plants

 and animals too. By doing all of this it will not only make others feel better but us also.

    By using water filters to clean up the water and add more fresh water to the earth’s

surface it can improve it greatly. However if we fail our job it will not only make us look

bad but could possibly make the earth worse. It could be dangerous to use some tools that

we will use however we will use them with caution. We will make sure everyone wears gloves

 so that all the bacteria and pollution will not infect us.

    Being careful while doing this is the number one concern. If we happen to mess up and

spill and spill anything we have taken out we will have to start all over. All of the

environmentalists will have been trained to do this helpful but dangerous job. When

succeeding it will make the earth better and everyone very happy to live near the bay.

Therefore everyone will keep their jobs. We will save plants and animals. As well as


    Enviornmentalists are important to the Chesapeake Bay Watershed because we have to

work harder to protect the earth. The Bay's problems affect my group because even

though we love the environment the work to constantly clean is getting tough. One solution

that we suggest is that maybe we reroute the sewage pipes leading somewhere where the

sewage won't get into the bay. One way that this solution could affect us in the extensive

building of new sewage lines and rerouting everything.

    Our group is important to the environment because if it wasn't for us there would be no

one to even think about taking care of the environment. We're the reason there's probably

an environment left. And the bays problems keep us occupied with ideas about how to clean

 up the bay.

    Its good for our livlihood because it gives us things to do so that we can try to fix the

problems. We would prefer the more natraul way of fixing things so that it dosent harm

the enviroment in any other way and also protect the wildlife. The solutions will benefit us

by giving us a healthier enviroment to live in. If the bay isnt cleaned up we could all

dissapear by drinking polluted water and breathing polluted air.



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Thoughtful Questions


  From:   The Chesapeake Strip Mall - Other - MRGS                                           Ask


     What specific water filter systems did you have in mind? Are they natural filters or

     man-made? Also, what do you propose be done with the sewage that is routed away

     from the Chesapeake Bay? Aside from that and the miscellaneous misspelled words, we

     liked your paper and the personal responsibility you put on people to protect their

     natural environment by seeking new solutions to old problems.




K and B's Seafood Restaurant                                                                   Calvert H.S.-Gustin

Business                                                                                                                  4/10/2008

     We are the owners of K and B’s Seafood Restaurant which is completely dependant on POV:

the aquatic life that inhabits the Chesapeake Bay. Seafood restaurants as a whole have

been criticized for causing many of the problems associated with the Bay. Many of these

claims may be true for some restaurants; it does not apply for us. Here at K and B’s we

are in correlation with the Save the Bay Foundation and they suggest to us which aquatic

life can afford to be used as food. Many seafood restaurants are completely hypnotized

with making a profit off of the water but we understand that once we ruin the water our

livelihood will come to a screeching halt. For example the Oyster is a necessity to the

survival of the Bay due to its filtering abilities. One Oyster is capable of filtering 56 gallons

 of water in one day. In about the 1920’s it took approximately 3 days for the Oyster

population to filter the whole Bay. Now scientists predict that the current Oyster

population would take about 1 year to filter the entire bay. With this knowledge you will still

 find Oysters on the menu for many seafood restaurants associated with the Chesapeake

Bay. Until the oyster’s survival is guaranteed by the Save they Bay Foundation, you will not

find Oyster on our menu.



Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions

  From:   Because we said so. - local_gov - JWHS(T)                                              Statement


     I really like the approach your taking. It's straight forward and you aren't going to just cut

      down on the amount of oysters you serve. You're letting the oysters reproduce until

     everything is back to normal and the water can be filltered more efficiantly. It's the best

            and fastest way to do it.


       Response    DB Defenders - Waterman - JWHS(T)


             Do you market and advertise your attempts to protect the bay? That could draw

             more customers to your restaurant that care about the preservation of the bay

             and ultimately help more while making your business more successful. Being a

             business that comes in contact with many ordinary people who are not regularly

             involved with the bay gives you the opportunity to provide education to the


  From:   DORY-DORY FISH - Waterman - MHS                                                   Statement


     Thats awesome about how seafood restaurants could be joined with Bay correlations to

     know when its a good time to serve certain foods. I think more restaurants should have

     this program also because it would really help with keeping the populations of

     underwater animals alive. Your group has a cool stand on only using certain seafoods

     when they are available. Good job!

  From:   awesomley amazing super spectacular envoirnmentalist - Other -          Statement


     i believe that this is true. We use too much of the cloams and organisms in the

     Chesapeake Bay that we are killing some of the life in the waters. They other organisms

     have nothing to survive on then.




Makin Money                                                                                     Rappahannock H.S.-Settle

Industry                                                                                                                  4/15/2008

The Chesapeake Bay is an important national treasure. More than 100,000 rivers and POV:

streams drain into the bay, making it the largest estuary on the Atlantic coast and one of

the largest in the world. It’s a commercial and recreational resource for more than 15

million people living in the watershed. The watershed encompasses some 64,000 square-

miles in parts of six states. The Bay is home to more than 3,600 species of plants, fish, and

 animals. One major industry along the Chesapeake is the crabbing industry. The $150

million-a-year industry is steadily declining. The new regulations on commercial and

recreational crabbers are designed to reduce the crab harvest by 15 percent over the next

 three years. The female crab population has declined about 80% over the past 12 years.

      The two main types of wastes that affect the bay due to industries are air pollution

and chemical contaminants. The burning of materials in order to provide factories with

energy causes the air to become polluted with the smoke and fumes of those materials.

These pollutants are put into the water when precipitation brings them back down to

earth’s surface, which then turns them into chemical contaminants that get washed into the

 bay. One of the largest problems of air pollution in the bay is nitrogen. The type of

nitrogen that comes from air pollution is nitrogen oxides. These are released into the air

through the burning of oil, coal, or gas. It is estimated that about one third of the nitrogen

in the bay comes from air pollution. Also, some industries dispose of their waste improperly,

 which can cause it to get put into the Chesapeake Bay.

      Industry could get rid of their waste in a better way instead of dumping in the bay.

The industries would have to give up a little money and a little time. The solutions to the

problems would be an inconvenience. If people show them the damage that they do to the

bay they might change their mind. If other groups see that industries are trying to make

the bay better they would try harder so they wont look so bad. If the industries could try

to find a way to turn their waste into something good like a way to run their factories and

do it in a cleaner way such as not burning fossil fuels. If the industries on the bay

happened to disappear it would hurt the people around the bay because they wouldn’t have

all the supplies they once had close to them. Bay Program Partners have set a goal to

correct nutrients-related problems in the Bay and its tidal tributaries by 2010 by

implementing enhanced air pollution controls. While just 8 percent of the air nitrogen

reduction goal has been achieved, progress is expected to accelerate dramatically over the

next few years as recently approved air pollution control efforts take effect. As is, S.B. 13

 stipulates that the annual 50 million dollar fund, that comes from the Chesapeake Bay

Trust Fund – first established during November’s special session – must be used to reduce

non-point source pollution, or the kind of stuff that cannot be traced to one drainage pipe

or power plant.


Information from: (goes into depth on air

deposition from cars and what we are doing and what we need to do to fix this problem). (talks about all the different types of air

pollutions that are affecting the bay). (gives information about

the nitrogen problem in the bay and how to fix it). (gave us the crabbing industry information in the Chesapeake).



Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions


  From:   awesomley amazing super spectacular envoirnmentalist - Other -          Ask


     Why do you think this is happening?




Big Lots                                                                                            Rappahannock H.S.-Settle

Urban sprawl/construction                                                                                      4/15/2008

     Construction is one of the leading causes of pollution running into the Chesapeake Bay.  POV:

Many types of construction can cause pollution in the Chesapeake Bay.  Urban sprawl is the

 main cause of the increase of pollution in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries.  There

are many factors involved such as jetties, and piers built on the shoreline.  Houses built on

the shoreline are a major factor affecting the Chesapeake Bay also.

     The relationship between population growth and urban sprawl appears to be the most

obvious cause.  The sprawl causes many more homes, and schools to be built.  This causes

greater per capita land consumption.  Population growth and per capita land consumption

has caused a loss of 1200 square miles of rural land in the Bay and its tributaries since the

 1970s.  Sprawl has contributed to 55% and population has contributed 45% of the land


     Urban sprawl has caused a loss of wetlands, which is detrimental to the Chesapeake

Bay. Development of wetland costs up to $500 for a 1/10 of an acre to $7, 500 for a ˝

of an acre depending on where it is located, and quality of surrounding area.  The wetlands

provide habitat and homes to many species.  Loss of wetlands causes loss of habitat to

many species of waterfowl that migrate to the watershed in the winter months.

Urban sprawl has caused excessive sediments and nutrient loads into the watershed. 

Construction sites on a per acre basis contribute to 10 to 20% more sediment than

agricultural lands.  Increase in construction has caused an increase of sediment delivered

into the watershed. Sprawl has produced five to seven times as much sediment and

phosphorous as a forest.  Unmanaged growth will counteract any attempts in trying to

clean up the Bay.

     Roadways affect the Bay and its tributaries by the rainwater running off of the

roadways.  Nitrogen is the main cause of pollution in the Bay and its tributaries.  Sprawl has

 contributed to more people traveling to the cities to shop, and eat in restaurants.  People

traveling to the city causes excess nitrogen going into the bay because of the car exhaust

has a lot of nitrogen in it.  Concentrating development around metro stations, so residents

don’t have to drive as far is a popular idea that is receiving attention in Maryland and

Northern, Virginia.

     Homes and condos built on water front properties are also affecting the Bay and its

tributaries by pollution from the septic fields.  Although there are new restrictions stating

that you must have engineered systems on non-perking land so that the pollution is limited. 

It is a large mound above the ground that the waste flows to.  Also the homes built along

the shore line have jetties, piers and bulkheads that change the way the water moves,

causing erosion of shoreline down stream causing, excess sediment into the bay, and its


     If laws and regulations are made we can save the bay.  We need to limit the number of

hours people can drive on the highways, by having swipe cards to limit the hours your car

can operate during a given time period.  The Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries are home to

 more than 3,000 species of plants and animals, and around 15 million people today.  The


restoration and long-term health of the bay depend on halting urban sprawl, and the excess

 nitrogen entering the bay by.  Which can be done if construction workers, and everyday

people stop worrying about themselves, and start worrying about the environment.  Nothing

 will be possible until we start working together, and not against each other.  If proper

measures are taken we can save the biodiversity of the bay and work towards restoring

the quality of the water for aquatic creatures, and for people to swim in.



Information on sprawl in wetland areas, and the rules, regulations and cost of it.

Information of sprawl, facts about the bay, and statistical information about bay and


Information on how nitrogen and sprawl affects the bay.

Air pollution caused by nitrogen affecting the bay.

Sediments affecting the bay.

Land Use, and Population Growth affecting the Chesapeake Bay.



Ask a Thoughtful Question or Respond

Thoughtful Questions


  From:   Rollin' in the Green - Other - MRGS                                                      Statement


     Your paper was very well structured and full of supportive statistics. I have one

     suggestion though. Even though limiting the amount of time drivers spend on the roads is

     a good idea, I highly doubt that people will want to give up that freedom. An alternative

     method to reduce the amount of runoff is porous asphalt. Porous asphalt reduces the

     amount of runoff drastically and also filters pollutants that could run into the bay.

  From:   awesomley amazing super spectacular envoirnmentalist - Other -          Statement


     i like it




Sycamores                                                                                         Rappahannock H.S.-Settle

foresters                                                                                                                 4/15/2008

     The Chesapeake Bay watershed stretches a whole 64299 square feet and runs through POV:

six states. It runs through Virginia, Maryland, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New

York and all of the District of Columbia. It is home to more than 3,600 species of plants

and animals and more than 15.1 million people. It is the largest of 130 estuaries in the

United States. An estuary is a body of water where salt and fresh water meets. The

Chesapeake Bay puts out 24 billion dollars a year in recreation, flood control, and habitat


     A watershed is an area of land where all the water that is under it or drains off of it

goes into the same place. A big part of the forested watersheds are the riparian buffers.

The riparian buffers are trees or some kind of buffer between a river and the forest. It

stops some of the major pollutants from entering the river. If we cut down the buffer

zone, then we would have to work harder to purify the water. Degraded riparian buffers

result in reduced water quality, reduced wildlife and fish populations, property damage and

 loss of valuable agricultural lands. That’s why we need to conserve the riparian buffers. 

     A forested watershed acts like a sponge. It soaks up the rainfall into its ground, roots,

leaves, and ferns. When they are fully saturated they slowly release the water, thus

delivering a consistent waters supply. So you can see why it is so important that we keep

the watershed clean. Without buffers or laws such as the Chesapeake Bay act, sewage and

waste would just creep into the Chesapeake Bay.

     Another major injury to the buffers protecting the watershed is invasive species. 

These are species that are not native to the area that hurt indigenous species to create

their own space.  In order to restore the plants that form the buffer, invasive species must

 be controlled and limited.  One way to do this is to kill these invaders by cutting them off

and immediately applying herbicide.  This process, though, must be done carefully in order

not to pollute the ground water with the chemicals even more. For animal invasive species

the foresters want to fence in forested preserves until trees are well established.

     In conclusion the Chesapeake Bay watershed is very important not to just people around

 the Chesapeake Bay but to people living in the watershed all the way up to New York.

Because of clear cutting and deforestation the forests of the Chesapeake Bay watershed

is loosing its precious forests that we desperately need to keep the Chesapeake Bay alive.


Information on forest replanting:

Information on how the forest relates to the watershed:

Information on animal invasive species:

Information on plant invasive species:

Introductive information on watershed:



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Mind Blowing Menhaden                                                                    Rappahannock H.S.-Settle

Menhaden Fishing Industry                                                                                      4/16/2008

        Menhaden, once a booming industry on the shores of the Chesapeake Bay for over POV:

130 years, is now run by a single company and caught in a whirlwind of controversy. Omega

 Protein, the company behind the fishery, has locations in Virginia, Louisiana, and Mississippi,

harvesting more than 390 million Menhaden from the bay alone each year. These kinds of

numbers worry conservationists. VIMS, a marine science institute out of Yorktown, is

currently working on getting an accurate estimate of the Menhaden population through

satellite technology. With this information, scientists can then allow more or less Menhaden

to be harvested, leaving enough fish in the bay to support its food web.

     Omega Protein Inc., out of Reedville VA, employs around 350 workers in the

Northumberland area during the year. It’s the largest employer in the county and brings

money into the county, one of the poorest in the Northern Neck per capita income. Also,

the benefits that come from the Menhaden products Omega Protein produces are helpful

and useful in many ways. People with blood circulatory problems use fish oil for their veins.

Fish products also help produce things such as ink, plastics, animal feed, and even building


     Menhaden, though not use as a fish food for humans, are being taken from the bay in

large numbers. These fish are an important part of the bays ecosystem. They are filter

feeder fish and a major food source for a variety of other fish and seabirds up and down

the Atlantic coast. Menhaden are the base of the bay food web and the most abundant fish

 in the bay. Conservationists are working to keep it that way by setting limits on the

harvesting season as well as many other efforts to protect these vital fish. A yearly cap on

 the amount allowed to be scooped out of the bay has also been proposed to help as well.

     As a group, we see both sides of the Menhaden industry equally. The harvest of these

fish from the Chesapeake Bay is vital in many ways. These products as well as the heart-

healthy fatty acids derived from these fish are important to those with health problems.

On the flip side, too many fish are being taken each year. Conservationists are right in

trying to preserve the Menhaden population for years to come. We believe there should be

some type of balance between the two points of view such as new regulations on harvesting

 techniques and annual amounts to keep the industry in the bay instead of making one side

more right than the other.


Works Cited

A Fish Tale. David Brancaccio. 2008. Jumpstart Productions. 7 April 2008: Living. Richard G. Johnstone, Jr.

VMDAEC. 8 April 2008.: Matter.

Dick Brame. Chesapeake Bay Foundation. 8 April 2008.:



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BlowBoats                                                                                          Rappahannock H.S.-Settle

Marina Owners                                                                                                        4/16/2008

     The Chesapeake Bay is a valued resource. It is the largest estuary on the Atlantic coast,POV:

 and the third largest in the world. The Chesapeake drains to six states: VA, DE, PA, WV,

MD, and D.C. Approximately 17 million people live in this 64,000 sq. mi watershed. There

are over 100,000 creeks, streams, or rivers in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay

watershed affects many people, and its quality is an important concern.

     Water pollution is a large problem among the Chesapeake Watershed. Because of oil,

grease, and chemicals, marina owners are a source of non-point solution. As measures of

improvement, the Department of Conservation and Recreation (DCR) joined the Virginia

Coastal Program, Virginia Sea Grant, and other state agency and industry partners to

develop a “Clean Marina Guidebook.” Among other practices this guidebook includes storm

water runoff and fish waste management measures.

     In 2001, Virginia launched the Virginia Clean Marina Program to help distribution of the

Guidebook. This program was designed initially to educate and recognize marinas that

implement Best Management Practices (BMPs). Those who adopt the measures explained in

the Guidebook and implement the BMPs gain certification as a Virginia Clean Marina.

     Marina owners have no control over the characteristics of the Bay or how pollutants

act in it. However, it is important to understand them when trying to improve the water

quality and decrease pollution. Some of these characteristics of how pollutants act in the

Bay, that play a role in the understanding of change, are if they are diluted quickly or not,

accumulate in sediments or remain in the water column, and if they concentrate in specific

areas or disperse. Sediment can be a concern at any marina because it can create turbid

waters, can lead to dredging due to the accumulation in the marina basin, and the pollutants

 carried with it.

     Also attached to sediment particles are nutrients and toxic substances. Each has

different forms and tendencies to attach to particles, biodegrade, and volatilize. Each

form might also have a different toxicity to aquatic life and change when the compound is

moved from one environment to another. The type of water body a marina is on makes a

difference in processes like sedimentation, pollutant delivery, settling, and resuspension.

Pollutant resuspension is another concern to marinas. Toxic metals are often mentioned,

but organic matter, bacteria, nutrients, and other pollutants concentrated in sediment are

also resuspended by water turbulence and can cause water quality problems.

     Nutrient delivery to the Bay is a primary focus to research. Over time, nutrient delivery

 has increased dramatically. In 1972 the Clean Water Act was broadcasted. In 1976 the

US Congress issued a directive, in testimony to the importance of water quality of the Bay,

to the Chesapeake Bay Program examining the factors that were changing the conditions of

 the Bay. This was to see the benefits of water quality legislation in the Bay from 1972 to

1976. Results indicated that benefits for annual boating, fishing, and swimming ranged

from a total of $357.9 million to $1.8 billion.

     Marina owners have factors such as pollutants, sediment, nutrients, and others to take

into consideration while trying to improve the conditions of the Bay. While they are running

their marinas, they also have to be understanding of marine society and know what to do

and what not to do in order to best control the water quality. As the marina being located

on certain bodies of water come into effect of what precautions to take, also does the

different characteristics of the pollutants dealt with by marina owners. In areas to

decrease toxic waste of chemicals, marina owners should use less toxic chemicals and try

to dispose of the chemicals by keeping them from being washed in to the river. To decrease

 the stirring up of sediment in low circulation zones, marina owners should keep the amount

of piers and boats in the area to a limited amount and also develop a size degree. In

general marina owners need to increase the care of their marina area by following all

guidelines and taking as many precautions as possible.


Science Direct



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hug a tree                                                                                        Rappahannock H.S.-Settle

foresters                                                                                                                 4/16/2008

     The Chesapeake Bay watershed is about 64,000 square miles and stretches across six POV:

states. Our forests are important in many ways including; cleaning the air, filtering and

cooling the water, and storing and cycling nutrients. The forests cover 58% of the Bays

watershed. To help prevent pollution in our streams, trees should be planted to help filter

runoff. When it rains, the water flows over the ground picking up oil, soil, fertilizers, and

other chemicals and goes into our watershed. The best management practices help protect

the quality of the water.

     A riparian buffer is the area of land next to a stream (the streambanks or floodplain

area). Riparian forest buffers’ function is to provide control of the stream environments. It

 moderates fluctuations in the stream temperature and controls light quantity and quality.

This will help enhance the habitats diversity. Buffers that already exist can be improved

through the ordinance requirements.

     Maryland and Virginia require a 100-foot vegetated buffer along the shoreline of the

Chesapeake Bay. The Virginia’s Chesapeake Bay Preservation Act provides for a limited use

within the buffer, it generally allows for the marinas and docks within the buffer. In April

2001 some changes to the Chesapeake Bay Preservation Plan included; the expansion of the

 Resource Protection Areas, a new plan of development submittal requirements, new tree

protection and tree canopy replacement requirements, it updated storm water quality

framework, and increased opportunity for public review of exception requests.

     Some ways to help protect and prevent destruction of the Bay’s forests include;

encouraging the management on family-owned and other private forests, this can lower the

 risk of forest loss from parcelization. You can protect large tracts of the forest land by

enhancing the viability of the forest products. There are about $11.5 billion worth of goods

 and services produced on an annual basis from Virginia’s forest industries. If we can

balance the habitats and deer population then it will help sustain the naturally high diversity

of the Chesapeake forests. There are many other ways to help protect the Chesapeake

Bay’s forests so, every little effort you make now will be an enormous help in the future.


Works Cited



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  From:   Ecstatic Environmentalists - Other - MRGS                                            Statement


     Your paper is wonderful! Great development and explanations of improvement ideas. If

     you wanted to make your paper even better you could include some examples of

     problems already affecting the bay and what caused them, then offer the solutions.

            However, i dont feel like your paper absolutely NEEDS that..











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